From middleware to web services

Networks and Systems

Middleware for system integration

RPC, Java RMI and Python PYRO

  • Closely follow the traditional program development process that creased an application based on

    1. Program libraries integration

    2. Parameter passing

  • Do not require developers to deal with socket programming when implementing programs that support remote communication

  • Have a performance issue due to synchronous communication


  • Still follow the programming library approach

  • Similar to Java RMI: provide object request broker (ORB) define the interface definition language (IDL)

  • Integrate components developer by different programming languages

Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM)

  • We need something more loosely coupled

  • Communication using messages

  • Messages stored in message queues

  • Message servers decouple client and server

  • Various assumptions about message content

  • Provides data persistence, if server goes down, when it comes back up it will send the info again

Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM)

Properties of MOM

Asynchronous interaction

  • Client and server are only loosely coupled

  • Messages are queued

  • Good for application integration

Support for reliable delivery service

  • Keep queues in persistent storage

Processing of messages by intermediate message server(s)

  • May do filtering, transforming, logging

  • Networks of message servers

Natural for database integration

Choose which requests get processed and combine duplicate requests into one request (similarly to multicasting)

Java Message Service (JMS)

  • API specification to access MOM implementations

  • Two modes of operations

  • Point to point

    • One to one communication
  • Publish/subscribe

    • One to many communication
  • JMS server implements JMS API

  • JMS clients connect to JMS servers

  • Java objects can be serialised to JMS messages

Web services

Use well-known web standards for distributed computing


  • Message content expressed in XML

  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) - lightweight protocol for sync/async communication

Service description

  • Web Services Description Language (WSDL) - interface description for web services

Service Discovery

  • Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI) - directory with web service description in WSDL

Web services

Attributed of Web-Services

Web based protocols - Web services based on HTTP are designed to work over the public internet. The use of HTTP for transport means these protocols can traverse firewalls, and can work in a heterogeneous environment

Interoperability - SOAP defines a common standard that allows differing systems to interoperate

XML based - The Extensible Markup Language is a standard framework for creating machine-readable documents



  • An architectural style, treating the web as a resource centric application

  • Each URL in a RESTful application represents a resource


  • An open standard format that uses human readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute-value pairs

  • Provide lightweight communication